The weather of the Kaliningrad area of Russia has seasonal variations which have develop into substantial in the latest a long time and which are clinically unfavorable, as evidenced by an improved incidence of respiratory and pores and skin health conditions among incoming pupils.
Functional goods created applying cryogenic freezing technologies enable for the production of super fine particles and the preservation of vitamins. The use of just one gram of a cryopowder equals the use of 700–1000 g of refreshing fruits or vegetables many thanks to the removal of drinking water.
The recent randomised review, involving 100 1st year Kaliningrad students, aimed to analyse the efficiency of a pill dietary supplement containing watermelon seeds (13%), oats (8%), rose hips (20%), spinach (8%), kelp (16%), parsley (15%), celery (10%) and egg white (10%) as a signifies of restoring the vitamin and mineral harmony of the human body and decreasing morbidity during social adaptation and acclimatization.
The nutritional supplement decided on experienced a superior vitamin (A, B1, B2, E, K1, C) and mineral material (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cr) and was built to have a advantageous impact on the immune program.
The 34-week observation showed a 1.7-fold minimize in the incidence of respiratory health problems and a 5.7-fold lower in pores and skin and subcutaneous tissue ailments. Acute respiratory bacterial infections were lessened 1.8-fold.There ended up no circumstances of local community-obtained pneumonia in the treatment group, as opposed with 55.1‰ in the manage group. The incidence of respiratory health conditions was 3.3–10.6 times lower in the treatment team than in the control group in months 6–19.
The authors say their results testify to the prophylactic effect of functional meals during social adaptation and acclimatisation of college students.
The scientists studied two teams of initial-year pupils who had appear to Kaliningrad from other Russian areas. There were 50 students in each individual team – treatment and manage.The daily diet plan of the two groups was well balanced and the identical (organised catering) but the treatment method team also consumed .9g of the useful product or service (FP) twice a working day (breakfast and supper) for 15 days. This started 4–5 months after the arrival of pupils in the region.Blood samples were being taken a few occasions: before the consumption of the purposeful meals (day 21), on day 15 of the treatment (a working day soon after the very last consumption, day 37) and on day 45 of the treatment method (working day 67).
At the conclude of the observation period, the level of copper in blood samples of the therapy group was 12.3% (p < 0.05) higher than that of the control group. There was an increase in the level of iron by 15.2% (p < 0.05 magnesium-by 6.3% (p < 0.05) and of phosphorus by 16.1% (p < 0.05).At the end of the observation, the level of iron was 20.8% above the initial (p < 0.05), of magnesium 34.2% (p < 0.05) and phosphorus 21.2% (p < 0.05).Whereas in the control group there was a 22.6% decrease in the level of magnesium (p < 0.05) and a 10.1% decrease in phosphorus (p < 0.05).The intake of the functional product contributed to an increase in the concentration of vitamins in blood. At the end of the observation, the content of vitamin A was above the initial level by 23.6% (p < 0.05), vitamin E by 16.9% (p < 0.05) and vitamin B2 by 28.3% (p < 0.05). Both groups showed a decrease in the content of vitamin B1, which was more significant in the control group—17.0% at the end of the observation. In the control group, pre-treatment vitamin E concentration was below the reference boundary in 40.0% of students. After 15 days, this percentage increased to 90.0% (φ = 3.567) and remained at this level until the end of the observation (80.0%, φ = 2.672).The FP also helped preserve testosterone level and prevent an increase in catabolic reactions. Moreover, it had a positive effect on both red blood cell hematopoiesis and white blood cell hematopoiesis. The stimulation of humoral immunity was evidenced by beta- and gamma-globulins, an active immune response, the level of IgM and IgG, antioxidant protection, reduction of peroxides and an increase in antioxidant activity of blood serum.
Mechanisms of action
Vitamin A is a potent antioxidant it is involved in the completion of phase III and IV of phagocytosis and increases the synthesis of IgE and IgG. It stimulates the formation of T-killers in stem lymphocytic cells and Th2-helpers by increasing the production of IL-4 and IL-5. Vitamin A deficiency leads to a decrease in the level of B-lymphocytes and T-helpers. Vitamin A is involved in redox reactions and protein synthesis, promotes normal metabolism, improves the function of the cell and subcellular membranes and plays an important role in the formation of bones and teeth. It is essential for the growth of new cells and slows down aging. Vitamin E is involved in the production of cytokines. It suppresses the generation of antigen-specific and antigen-specific suppressors and thus stimulates cellular and humoral immune responses. It has a positive effect on the function of macrophages, and it is a strong antioxidant. Vitamin B2 is a cofactor in the activity of glutathione reductase in erythrocytes and leukocytes. Riboflavin is essential for the formation of red blood cells and antibodies, for cell respiration and growth. It facilitates the absorption of oxygen by the cells of the skin, nails and hair .Copper increases the activity of macrophages. With a deficiency, there is a decrease in CD4 (T-helpers) and suppression of the functional activity of T- and B-lymphocytes. It participates in enzymatic catalysis (biocatalysis) and electron transfer and interacts with iron. Copper deficiency leads to leukopenia and neutropenia. Copper has a pronounced anti-inflammatory property and mitigates the manifestation of autoimmune diseases. Iron is part of transferrin, which is a lymphocyte activator. It has been established that low iron content in the body weakens the function of the immune system such that the saturation of tissues with granulocytes and macrophages decreases. Phagocytosis, the response of lymphocytes to stimulation with antigens, and the formation of antibodies are inhibited. A decrease in the level of iron in the body causes a sharp inhibition of the cytotoxic function of killer cells, and, along with this, the production of interferon by macrophages decreases .Phosphorus has a crucial role in the acid-base equilibrium of blood. As part of many organic compounds, it is involved in metabolism. Phosphorous deficiency is associated with general and calcium metabolism disorders, rickets and osteomalacia. Magnesium participates in bone tissue and tooth development, neuromuscular conduction, and ATP-dependent and kinase reactions. It is a coenzyme in carbohydrate and protein metabolism and an essential component of intracellular fluid. Magnesium compounds activate enzymes, particularly those taking part in calcium and phosphoric metabolism .
Tarasov, A.V. Rakhmanov, R.S. Bogomolova, E.S. Perminova, L.A. Malakhova, Z.L.
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